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Identification and differences of Monocot & Dicot Leaves

Last Updated on June 6, 2022 at 5:21 pm

Plants are classified into two categories, based on the number of cotyledon or embryonic leaves i.e., Monocots and Dicots. Monocot leaf is a flowering plant with only one cotyledon or embryonic leaf. Cotyledon or embryonic is one of the main parts of an embryo that comes out from the seed and along with the roots and shoots, it is found during the process of embryogenesis before germination. Monocot leaf can also be said as Monocotyledonous. These leaves are thin and elongated with parallel veins. All over the world, around 60,000 species of monocot are found. Monocot roots are fibrous. The Monocot leaf has three sets of flower parts. For eg: Water Plantains, Grass, Palm trees, etc.

Dicot Leaf

Dicot leaf is a flowering plant that has two cotyledon or embryonic leaves. Dicot leaf can also be known as Dicotyledonous. The number of cotyledons, dicots, and monocots exhibits different other characteristics of roots, flower parts, stems, and leaves that differentiate them from each other. Dicot leaves have distributed veins in reticulated or net-like patterns. Dicot has almost 1,75,000 known species all over the world.

The number of dicots, monocots, cotyledons, and dicots presents various features of roots, leaves, flower parts, and stems, that separate them from each other. The flower parts in the Dicots leaf are pentamerous or tetramerous. For eg., Oaks, Elms, Oaks, Mango, Rose, Papaya, Castor, Radish, and Guava.

Identification of Monocot and Dicot Leaves:

Monocot and Dicot Leaf can be identified in many various ways. Some of the identification of both Monocot and Dicot are provided below:

  • Monocot leaves are thin, longer, and narrower than dicot leaves. They are isobilateral in symmetry. Dicot leaves are relatively smaller and wider than monocot leaves. Dicot leaves are dorsoventral as the lower and upper sides of the leaves are distinguished
  • They have similar types of vascular tissues, dermal, and ground.
  • Monocot and dicot leaves are differently arranged within each type of leaf.
  • They have a waxy, outer layer known as a cuticle that covers the dermal tissue of both the lower and upper epidermis. The cuticle helps to retain water and protects the leaf.
  • In both, the vascular bundles are enclosed by bundle sheaths. Bundle Sheaths are defined as one or more layers of parenchyma cells. It helps to protect the “veins” of the leaf.

Difference between Monocot and Dicot Leaves:

The difference between Monocot and Dicot leaf happens in regard to their anatomy, where the monocot leaf is present in an elongated and narrow structure with venation, moreover, the dicot leaf is present in a rounded and short structure with reticulate venation.The main differences between them can be seen in size, shape, stomata, coloration, venation, Intercellular spaces, Epidermis, Motor cells, and mesophylls.

Differences between Monocot and Dicot Leaves are provided below:

PropertiesMonocot LeafDicot Leaf
Shapeelongated and narrow in shape.ypically round and wider in shape.
Leaf colorThe upper and lower surface is green in color.The lower surface of a dicot leaf is light green, whereas the upper surface of a dicot leaf is dark green.
VenationMonocot leaves veins are equivalent. They are parallel venationDicot leaves veins to expand out from one vein-like web. Dicot Leaf are reticulate venation
Stomatastomata is a dumbbell shape.stomata are Kidney-bean shaped.
Distribution of StomataMonocot leaves are amphistomatic.Dicot leaves are Hypostomatic.
MesophyllMonocot leaves have only one layered mesophyll.Dicot leaves have two mesophylls- Spongy and Palisade mesophyll.
Arrangement of StomataThe stomata are parallel and uniformly divided.The stomata are randomly arranged.
Intercellular spacesThe intercellular space because of the existence of the compact arrangement of mesophyll cells is small.The intercellular space because of the existence of loosely packed mesophyll cells.
Bulliform or Motor CellsIn the Monocot leaf, the bulliform cells are present.In Dicot leaves, Motor cells are not present.
Vascular BundlesMany large and small size vascular bundles are there in Monocot LeafVascular bundles are big in dicot leaves.
Nature of OrientationThe nature of orientation is Isobilateral.The nature of orientation is Dorsiventral.
ProtoxylemProtoxylem elements are divided.Dicot leaves protoxylem are not divided.
Bundle SheathMonocot leaves have one or two layers of bundle sheath.The bundle sheath in dicot leaves is one-layered.
Silica DepositionMonocot leaves have a broad deposition of silica.They don’t have a deposition of silica.

Examples of Monocot and Dicot Leaves:

In Monocot Leaf, there is a single cotyledon. In agriculture, Monocotyledons or Monocot leaves to build the majority of the biomass. It includes grasses as well as grains like sugarcane and bamboo. Some of the examples of Monocot leaves are Palms, bananas, plantains, Maize leaves, lilies, Garlic, onions, wheat, corn, orchids, bluebells, tulips, amaryllis, daffodils, iris, etc.

The dicot plants have two cotyledons. The leaves in dicot plants are net ventilation or reticulate and have a tap root system. Some examples of Dicot leaves are Cauliflower, Apples, Pear, Beans, Mustard leaves, Mint leaves, Legumes (pea, beans, lentils, peanuts), Cactus, etc.

Structure of Monocot and Dicot Leaves:

The structure of Monocot leaves is slim and broad with parallel veins, whereas the structure of Dicot leaves are reticulated or net-like patterns. Dicot leaves are Hypostomatic. Monocot leaves are slender, narrow, and longer than dicot leaves. Monocot leaves are isobilateral. Dicot leaves are relatively smaller and broader than monocot leaves. Dicot leaves are dorsoventral.

Monocot leaves have small intercellular spaces because the cells are compactly arranged, wheras dicot leaves have large intercellular spaces because the cells are loosely packed. The anatomy or internal structure of both Monocot and Dicot leaves can be demonstrated on the basis of structures like Epidermis, Mesophyll, and Vascular bundles.